Ahh. ICT exam tomorrow. I shall do notes here because my powerpoint and word aren’t working because I don’t have some product key to confirm it so they won’t let me do anything on it. D:
So I found this ICT for SPM syllabus thingy online. It’s basically something all the teachers have as a guideline to teach us. Pretty sweet. Since we have no idea what to study for ICT, having no official textbook or proper notes.
220.127.116.11 Define ICT.
This is the definition given by my teacher.
ICT (Information Communications Technology) is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
18.104.22.168 Describe the brief evolution of computers
In the evolution of computers their first generation was characterized by the use of vacuum tubes. These computers were expensive and bulky. They used machine language for computing and could solve just one problem at a time. They did not support multitasking.
In the 1960s, transistor based computers replaced vacuum tubes. Transistors made computers smaller and cheaper. They made computers energy efficient. But transistors were responsible for the emission of large amounts of heat from the computer. Due to this computers were subject to damage. The use of transistors marked the second generation of computers. Computers belonging to this generation used punched cards for input. They used assembly language.
The use of Integrated circuits ushered in the third generation of computers. Small transistors placed on silicon chips, called semi conductors. This increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Operating systems were the human interface to computing operations and keyboards and monitors became the input-output devices.
Thousands of integrated circuits placed onto a silicon chip made up a microprocessor. Introduction of microprocessors was the hallmark of fourth generation computers.
The fifth generation computers are under development. They are going to be based on principles of artificial intelligence and natural language recognition. Developers are aiming at computers capable of organizing themselves. The evolution of computers continues.
BANKING BEFORE ICT
• banking was done manually by taking deposits directly
• transactions can only be made during working hours
• takes time to approve any loan applications
BANKING WITH ICT
• all transactions are done by computers
• transaction can be done at anytime and place
• online services, phone banking system, credit cards are available
INDUSTRY BEFORE ICT
Production was slow because everything was done manually and totally depended on human labour.
INDUSTRY WITH ICT
Computers and telecommunications industry became very opular and profitable since production can be increased through an all day operation.
Commerce is an activity of exchanging, buying and selling of commodities on a large scale involving transportation from place to place.
COMMERCE BEFORE ICT
• Trading was made using the barter system and it was then later developed into currency.
• Advertisement was in the form of word of mouth, billboards and printed flyers.
• Trading globally was extremely slow, late and expensive. Traders had to find ways to market local products in the global market.
COMMERCE WITH ICT
E-commerce plays an important role in the economic scene. It includes distribution, buying, selling and servicing products that are done electronically.
1. Faster communication speed.
With the capability of bandwidth, broadband and fast connection speed on the Internet, any information can travel fast in an instant. It saves time and is inexpensive.
2. Lower communication cost.
It’s cheaper to use the Internet than using the telephone, mailing or courier services. It allows people to have access to a large amount of data at a very low cost.
3. Paperless environment.
Information can be stored and retrieved through a digital medium instead of paper.
4. Effective sharing of information.
People can share and exchange opinions, news and information through discussion groups, mailing lists and forums on the Internet. This enables knowledge/information sharing which will contribute to the development of a knowledge based society.
5. Reliable mode of communication.
GIGO is a short form for Garbage In Garbage Out. It refers to the quality of output produced according to the input. Normally bad input produces bad output.
Internet offers fast information retrieval, interactivity, accessibility and versatility. It has become a borderless sources for services and information. Through the Internet, information and communication can be borderless.
7. Social problems.
There are some negative effects of ICT. It has created social problems in the society. Nowadays, people tend to choose online communication rather than having real time conversations. People tend to become more individualistic and introvert.
Other negative effects of ICT are :
• identity theft
This will result in moral decadence and generate threats to the society.
8. Health problems.
A computer may harm users if they use it for long hours frequently. Computer users are also exposed to bad posture, eyestrain, physical and mental stress. In order to solve the health problems, an ergonomic environment can be introduced. For example, an ergonomic chair can reduce back strain and a screen filter can be used to minimize eye strain.