Articles

Sejarah Chapter 3 pula, Ancaman Parti Komunis Malaya and Darurat.

In ancaman komunis, chapter 3, form 3, history, malaysia, sejarah on September 19, 2009 by ailyn24voices

Srsly, they should have put THAT picture in our textbooks. I love it. Bahah. Anywayyy.
Intro.
In this chapter we will see kesungguhan kerajaan British membanteras ancaman komunis to mewujudkan keamanan and kesejahteraan. aaaand the kerajaan needs sokongan rakyat (that’s us!) in menghapus-ing pengganas komunis.
also, permuafakatan antara kerajaan and rakyat is the most effective weapon in menhadapi-ing bahaya fahaman komunis.
[Btw, the dude in the picture is Karl Marx. He wrote The Communist Manifesto, Das Capital and The German Ideology.]
3.1 Penyusupan and Kegiatan Pengganas Komunis
Communism was established in the mid 19th century by Karl Marx. Communism is a fahaman menentang golongan feudal (sistem kemasyarakatan yg dikuasai oleh golongan bangsawan) and golongan imperialis (countries that menjajah and mengenakan kuasa pemerintahan on other countries too) and they want to replace that system with pemerintahan yang berasaskan communism.
So basically, communism is being against golongan feudal and imperialis.
They fight for masyarakat with no class, memiliknegarakan tanah and perindustrian.
The Ai Lyn translation: These communists are fighting for equality for everyone, no upper-class, lower class thing, and I think memiliknegarakan tanah means not letting other countries take hold of your country.
Countries that menganuti communism is Russia and China.
In 1919, Communist International (Comintern) or Pertubuhan Komunis Antarabangsa mengarahkan-ed European communist parties to spread the communism ideology to the rest of the world.
Cara penyusupan.
In Malaya, communism was spread through Parti Kuomintang (KMT) and Parti Komunis Nanyang. Communism agents spread dakyah komunis among the Chinese through kesatuan sekerja, persatuan-persatuan, night classes and publishing?
Among the Malays, they tried to spread communism through Parti Komunis Indonesia (PKI) from 1924 till 1930.
HOWEVERRRR, the Malays did NOT like the communism understanding because….
1. It is against the Islamic principals (atheist) and is against adat resam org Melayu.
2. Communists used kekerasan and kezaliman to mencapai their matlamat.
All this stuff apparently is opposing Islam in every way. So, naturally, the malays are against communism. The End.
I think I’m going to ringkaskan the rest of the chapter and only put stuff that has a possibility of coming out in PMR.
PKM. (Parti Komunis Malaya)
-ditubuhkan in 1930.
Tujuan PKM ditubuhkan is to menubuhkan Republik Komunis Malaya. (their matlamat is to turn Malaya into a communist country :o :o :o )
PKM trained a number of kader (cadets?) and menyusup/infiltrated kesatuan sekerja, they even tried to bertapak in Sarawak but they failed.
*Kader- A new member of a political party that is trained to be a penyokong yg taat setia.
Menjelang tahun 1935, PKM’s activities became more aggressive. PKM melancarkan mogok and sabotaj to melumpuhkan ekonomi British di Tanah Melayu.

[ the paling hebat one was when they did some mogok and took over a arang batu mine in Batu Arang, Selangor. The British sent the police to end the mogok. All the pemimpins that were involved in that mogok were sent home to China. Following that incident, PKM leaders were arrested.
Also, when the Japanese invaded Tanah Melayu, PKM offered kerjasama to the British to attack Japan. [as opposed to KMM, who helped Jepun defeat the Brits]
PKM members were trained in taktik perang gerila* in Sekolah Latihan Khas 101 in Singapore.
PKM formed the MPAJA (Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army).
The British membekalkan senjata to the MPAJA through Force 136.
*perang gerila, apparently is this war tactic where one person goes and kills another single person on the opposing side and then runs away. yepyep.
After the war (the Brish-Japan war in Malaya) ended, Pentadbiran Tentera British asked MPAJA to membubarkan themselves and hand over their weapons.
PKM agreed to membubarkan MPAJA, hoever, they didn’t return ALL the weapons, but kept and hid some of them.
Oh, and those MPAJA people who gave back their weapon was handed 350 DOLLARS and received one bag of rice from the Brits.
What happened to PKM then? They menyusuped in kesatuan sekerja and started being terlibat secara active in pergerakan politik.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Now, we shall see some acts of keganasan by these communists in Malaya.
In 1948, a few wakil PKM went for the Persidangan Pemuda Komunis Asia that was held in Calcutta, India. That persidangan encouraged the communist parties to hold pemberontakans bersenjata to mencapai their matlamat.
Hasil from the Persidangan Pemuda Komunis Asia, a unit gerila known as Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was formed.
Soooo, because of that Persidangan Pemuda Komunis Asia, PKM started doing pemberontakans by attacking ladangs and lombongs owned by European companies. They also attacked police stations, they burnt factories, buses, spoilt rail roads and killed people who bersubahat with the Brits.
(in ladangs they made takikan on the rubber trees so that the rubber cannot be tapped and so the economy will… not do so well. hah.)
(there also destoryed a ladang in Kampung Simpang Tiga, Sitiawan, Perak because the villagers enggan bekerjasama.)
3.2 Langkah Membantera Ancaman Komunis
1. Pengisytiharan darurat.
Some pengganas komunis killed 3 european pengurus ladang in Sg. Siput, Perak. This peristiwa menggemparkan the Brits and so Sir Edward Gent (the Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British) mengisytiharkan a darurat in Malaya.
This darurat, according to my oh so beloved textbook, not, was to melindungi kepentingan ekonomi British in Malaya.
Following this pengisytiharan, Undang-undang Darurat 1948 dikuatkuaskan.
This law states that the kerajaan can
1. Arrest whoever is suspected to be involved in communist activities.
2. Menggeledah rumah kediaman.
3. Memindahkan penduduk ke penempatan baru.
4. Memagarkan kawasan kampung that is suspected to have villagers helping the pengganas komunis.
2. Pengharaman Parti Komunis Malaya dan Parti Berhaluan Kiri.
Next, the kerajaan BANNED PKM.
Also, the Brits mengambil kesempatan mengharamkan parti-parti politik berfahaman kiri that were fighting for independence.
AWAS- Angkatan WAnita Sedar
PETA- Ikatan Pemuda Tanah Air Melayu
PERAM- Pemuda Radikal Melayu
PKMM- Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya.
Hizbul Muslimin.
Note: From all this you must have noticed that the majority of Malayans supporting communism are the Chinese. Why the chinese? Because they want to take revenge on the Malays who menjadi tali barut during the Japanese rule (the Japanese killed a lot of Chinese because of the Perang China-Jepun).
3. Memperbesar pasukan keselamatan.

The kerajaan also meperbesar the pasukan tentera and police. The police team was restructured and made to have 7000 officers.
The Brits also brought in soldiers from the other Commenwealth countries especially from Australia, New Zealand, Africa Timur and Fiji to menghapuskan ancaman komunis in Malaya.
Besides that, the kerajaan also menubuhkan pasukan Home Guard di peringkat kampung to held the pasukan polis and tentera to menjaga keselamatan.
This Home Guard team was made up of men and women.
Penubuhan pasukan Home Guard telah meniupkan semangat yang berkobar-kobar dalam kalangan rakyat to mempertahankan negara.
Kesanggupan and keberanian org Melayu berlawan dengan pengganas komunis impressed the Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British (Sir Henry Gurney) at the time.
24 000 orang Mata-mata Khas Melayu (Special Constables) were trained and send to mengawal ladang and kawasan lombong yang terpencil.
Pasukan keselamatan also bombed and melakukan serangan hendap to the kawasan that became sarang komunis with the help of the Tentera Udara British.
5. Rancangan Briggs.

Rancangan Briggs was launched by Sir Henry Gurney in 1950.
Sir Harold Rowdon Briggs was picked to be the Pengarah Operasi.
This Rancangan Briggs involved penempatan semula penduduk di kawasan pinggir hutan ke kaawasan penempatan baru (Kampung Baru)
Rancangan Briggs’s objective is to menyekat bekalan makanan, wang, maklumat and ubat-ubatan to the pihak komunis. This plan was terribly effective in melumpuhkan gerakan Min Yuen.
*Min Yuen
-ditubuhkan oleh PKM to memberi maklumat, makanan and ubat-ubatan to the pengganas komunis. A lot of them were pekerja lombong and ladang.
1. Through Rancangan Briggs, more than 400 000 penduduk setinggan Cina were moved to moved to about 400 kampung baru’s through out Malaya.
These kampung baru’s were equipped with kemudahan asas like houses, schools, medical facilities and pipe water.
2. They were also fenced with kawat berduri and dikawal by the Special Constable.
3. In every kampung baru, each family is given a kad catuan makanan to ensure every family received enough bekalan makanan (just enough, so there will be no extra food for the communists).
4. Pergerakan keluar masuk penduduk dikawal selia pada setiap masa.

5. “Gerakan Kelaparan”. This program was to ensure the communists don’t obtain any makanan, senjata, maklumat and ubat-ubatan. (+weapons)
6. Briggs supported penubuhan MCA (Malayan Chinese Association) to help the setinggan Cina menjalani kehidupan in their new kampungs. MCA held kutipan derma through jualan loteri kebajikan. The money went to penduduk setinggan Cina in the kampung baru’s.
7. Sekatan jalan raya was held to prevent makanan, maklumat and ubat-ubatan from reaching the communists because the communists would have to come out from their hiding places to get food. [ the pasukan keselamatan, police and Home Guards worked together to hold these sekatan jalan raya's to memulihkan keamanan in Malaya]
8. The kerajaan also introduced sistem pendaftaran kebangsaan to mengawal pergerakan penduduk. Every kid aged 12 years and above have to register and be given a kad pengenalan to membezakannya from the pengganas komunis.
Rancangan Briggs succeeded in melumpuhkan rangkaian gerakan PKM.
In the Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Pusat in Pahang, PKM decided to mengurangkan kekejaman to the public and retreated to South Thailand.
Ahhh. My eyes sakit adi. That’s it for chapter 3.

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